This Council on Foreign Relations–sponsored Independent Task Force report examines the various trends in Turkey and assesses their consequences for U.S. policy toward the country and the region more broadly. The report begins by taking stock of the modern U.S.-Turkey relationship, noting strains over the past decade stemming from differences over policy toward Iraq. The Task Force then considers the political, social, and economic reforms Ankara has made in recent years along with threats to further progress. The report also includes a discussion of Turkey’s potential role as a regional energy hub and its growing importance to foreign policy debates within and beyond its traditional reach in NATO and Europe. Within each section of the report, the Task Force offers recommendations on how the United States can support Turkey’s continued emergence and build a deeper working relationship that acknowledges Ankara’s growing importance. It encourages the United States and other democracies to urge Turkish leaders to follow through with their commitment to writing a new constitution that better protects minority rights and basic freedoms and clearly defines the relationship between military and civilian authorities. The Task Force further recommends exploring a Turkish-American Partnership to deepen trade and economic ties and calls on the two countries to expand bilateral trade and investment. The Task Force advocates continued liberalization of Turkish law on intellectual property, tax, and business regulations. And it calls on the United States to work with Turkey as it becomes a more important actor in the energy sphere. There is much the United States can do, the Task Force says, to promote constructive collaboration in foreign policy, from partnering with the Turkish development agency on regional aid to supporting Turkey’s burgeoning role as a regional economic engine. Close consultations are warranted on regional challenges, including stopping the violence in and bringing political change to Syria and frustrating Iran’s bid for nuclear weapons and regional primacy. American support for rapprochement between Turkey and Israel is also encouraged.